New York LLC Operating Agreement

One of the most popular business structure types is the limited liability company (LLC) because of the many benefits it offers. In New York, an LLC requires a comprehensive Operating Agreement outlining the rights and obligations of each member of the company. 

This article will provide an overview of how to create a legally binding New York LLC Operating Agreement. By having this information, business owners can ensure their company remains in compliance with NY laws.

What is an LLC Operating Agreement?

An LLC Operating Agreement is a legal document that outlines the business operations, ownership structure, and management of a limited liability company. This agreement is an essential part of any NY LLC as it establishes the responsibilities and rights of each member, sets out how profits and losses will be divided amongst members, specifies when meetings are held, and more. 

The Operating Agreement should also be reviewed regularly and updated as needed to ensure all members are on the same page. If there are any changes in the business structure or operations, the Operating Agreement should be amended to ensure everyone is properly informed. 

Does NY require all LLCs to have an Operating Agreement?

It’s important to note that, unlike other states, having a written Operating Agreement is a requirement for New York LLCs. This way, businesses can prevent disputes among members by outlining the expectations for each member and providing a clear procedure for resolving any issues. 

However, there haven’t been any serious repercussions for failure to provide an Operating Agreement so far. Nonetheless, it’s good for businesses to take the time to create one as part of their risk management efforts.

What are the Advantages of an Operating Agreement in New York?

These are the advantages of having an Operating Agreement in New York:


An Operating Agreement provides a clear and concise blueprint for all members to follow regarding their rights, responsibilities, and obligations within the company. It ensures that each person is aware of what is expected of them and avoids any misunderstandings or disagreements.

This way, everyone is on the same page and any potential conflicts can be avoided. It also provides a roadmap for handling any disputes that may arise in the future, so there’s no need to guess or make assumptions when it comes to how things are supposed to work with your LLC.

Liability protection

An Operating Agreement also helps protect the members of a New York LLC from personal liability for business debts and obligations. Outlining the roles and responsibilities of each individual helps protect the personal assets of members from being used to settle any debts incurred by the company.

Moreover, it helps protect members from personal liability in cases of negligence or mismanagement. By setting out clearly who is responsible for what, it can help prevent any legal action against individual members by proving that they were acting within their capacity as part of the business.

Tax savings

This document can lead to tax savings as well. With an Operating Agreement, you can set out all contributions made by members in terms of capital, property, or services. As such, you can ensure that only income earned by the business is subject to taxation rather than shared among its owners.

For instance, if you have an LLC with two members, one of whom has contributed significant capital to the business while the other has provided services, that second member may be taxed on all profits earned by the business. With an Operating Agreement in place, only income attributable to each member’s contribution would be subject to individual taxation. That can lead to significant tax savings for both parties.


An Operating Agreement allows members of a New York LLC to have greater flexibility in how they manage their business. It can provide for different voting requirements, distribution of profits, or other specific needs that the members of an LLC may have.

This means that an Operating Agreement can be tailored to meet the specific needs of a business and its members. It also allows for changes to be made as the business evolves, without having to go through a lengthy amendment process.


Lastly, an Operating Agreement lends credibility and legitimacy to a New York LLC by showing potential clients or investors that it is properly organized and managed. It also serves as evidence that the company is compliant with all applicable laws and regulations in relation to its business operations.

Credibility is key when it comes to any business venture, and a proper Operating Agreement helps to establish that. It is an essential document for any New York LLC to ensure that the company is able to operate in an organized, legitimate manner.

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What are the Limitations of an Operating Agreement in New York?

Creating an LLC Operating Agreement in New York can be a wise move, but it’s important to acknowledge its limitations:

State default rules

If your LLC doesn’t have an Operating Agreement, it will be subject to New York’s default rules and regulations for LLCs. This can lead to potential gaps or conflicts if these default rules don’t align with your LLC’s needs.

The default rules cover areas such as:

  • Allocation of profits and losses among members
  • Rights and responsibilities of members, managers, and other agents 
  • Distribution of assets upon dissolution 
  • Voting procedures 
  • Resolving disputes between members or with third-parties

Limited influence on external parties

While an Operating Agreement defines internal operations, it might not have much sway over external parties. Business partners, lenders, and investors might prioritize other legal documents when making decisions.

As such, the Operating Agreement may not be legally binding outside the LLC itself. This could limit the LLC’s ability to make certain decisions or enter into binding agreements.

Interpretation differences

Even with an Operating Agreement in place, differing interpretations of its clauses can arise, potentially leading to disputes among members. Clarity and precision are crucial during drafting to ensure that the Operating Agreement is interpreted in the way it was intended.

Unforeseen changes

An Operating Agreement might not address every potential scenario that can arise during your LLC’s lifespan. As circumstances change, the agreement could become less applicable or relevant.

For example:

  • If you add new members to your LLC, the Operating Agreement might not have provisions in place for how these new members will be treated. 
  • If you change the activities of your LLC, there could be conflicting clauses between what is written in the agreement and what actually happens in practice. 
  • In cases where a dispute arises that isn’t covered by the Operating Agreement, it could take time and money to resolve it without a clear answer from the start.

Lack of public record

Unlike some documents filed with the state, an Operating Agreement isn’t typically filed in public records. This means its terms are private among members, but it can also make enforcement a bit trickier.

The Operating Agreement also doesn’t have the same legal clout as other documents such as Articles of Organization or a Certificate of Formation, so its terms may not be enforceable in court.

What Should You Include in an LLC Operating Agreement?

Having a comprehensive LLC Operating Agreement is crucial to set clear regulations, prevent disputes, and outline the operational framework of your business. Here’s what you should include:

Basic information

At the forefront, provide vital details like the LLC’s official name, address, and the purpose it was established for. This foundational information sets the stage for the entire agreement.

Member roles and responsibilities

Avoid ambiguity by clearly defining the roles and responsibilities of each member. This proactive step ensures that misunderstandings and potential conflicts are preemptively addressed.

Capital contributions

Clarify financial stakes by outlining the initial investments made by each member and any prospective contributions. This way, you can determine ownership percentages easily.

Profit and loss allocation

Ensure equitable treatment by detailing how profits and losses will be allocated among members. Often, this distribution is proportionate to each member’s ownership percentage.

Voting rights and decision-making

Provide a roadmap for decision-making by explaining the procedures for voting on important matters. Determine the specifics of vote counting, the definition of a majority, and the process for pivotal choices.

Management structure

Establish a clear hierarchy by specifying whether the LLC will be overseen by its members or designated managers. Discuss their respective responsibilities, authority, and decision-making powers.

Admission and departure of members

Integrate new members by outlining precise procedures for their admission, including the process of transferring ownership interests. Also, define the protocols for voluntary departure or removal.

Dissolution and winding up

Address the unlikely event of dissolution by detailing the necessary steps, including the distribution of assets and the resolution of liabilities. This safeguards against chaos in challenging times.

Meetings and communication

Foster effective communication by clearly stating the frequency and triggers for meetings. Additionally, clarifyhow members will communicate with one another to maintain a cohesive environment.

Dispute resolution

Prioritize harmony by incorporating a mechanism to resolve disputes among members. This proactive inclusion can prevent potential legal battles and uphold a cooperative atmosphere.

Non-compete and confidentiality clauses

Tailor the agreement to your industry’s dynamics by contemplating clauses that prevent members from competing with the LLC or disclosing sensitive information. This way, you enhance protection for your business.

Amendment procedures

Anticipate change by outlining the procedures for amending the Operating Agreement in the future. This ensures adaptability to shifting circumstances and keeps the agreement relevant.

Governing law

Specify the jurisdiction and state laws that will govern the agreement. This clarity establishes a legal foundation for potential disputes and ensures consistent interpretation.

Effective date

Mark the starting point by explicitly stating when the Operating Agreement becomes active. As a result, you can ensure all involved parties are aware of the agreement’s applicability from a defined moment.

How to Form an Operating Agreement

Creating a comprehensive Operating Agreement for your LLC involves several strategic steps:

Discussion with members

Engage all members in candid discussions about the agreement’s contents. Collaboratively decide on crucial aspects to prevent misunderstandings later.

Legal consultation

Seek guidance from an experienced business attorney. Their expertise ensures that the agreement aligns with New York laws and suits your LLC’s unique needs.

Thorough drafting

Be meticulous in detailing every aspect of your LLC’s operations. Leave no stone unturned. Again, clarity is key to preventing future disputes.

Critical components

Ensure the agreement covers member roles, ownership stakes, profit distribution, voting procedures, and decision-making. Make sure to include a section on conflict resolution as well.

Review and edits

Allow all members to review the draft and offer suggestions. Make necessary adjustments for a well-rounded agreement.

Signing and notarizing

Once consensus is reached, have all members sign the agreement. Notarization isn’t mandatory, but it adds an extra layer of authenticity.

Storage and accessibility

Keep multiple copies securely stored. Members should have easy access to the agreement whenever needed.

Continuous evaluation

As your LLC grows and changes, periodically revisit and update the agreement to ensure its relevance. It’s always good to ensure that all your business documents are accurate.

Why is an operating agreement needed?

Enforceable in Court

The terms outlined in a written LLC operating agreement is usually enforceable in a court of Law.

Opening Bank account

Certain financial institutions require you to produce an operating agreement to verify whether you have “signing power” for the LLC.

Avoid disputes

If the terms of compensation, roles, and responsibilities are mentioned in the operating agreement, it avoids disputes among LLC members in the future.

Preserve limited liability status

Especially if you are a single-member LLC, having an operating agreement helps ensure your liability status is upheld in court.

Create a customized operating
agreement now!

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  • Agreement amendments
  • Multiple versions
Create free agreement

How Much is a New York LLC Operating Agreement?

The cost of creating a New York LLC Operating Agreement will depend heavily on what type of services you’re looking for. If you’re using a professional, such as an attorney or a registered agent, the cost could range anywhere from $500 to several thousand dollars, depending on the complexity of your LLC and how much work is involved in drafting it. 

On the other hand, if you decide to draft your own LLC operating agreement, there are many resources available online that can help guide you through the process. You might also be able to find templates that allow you to customize them to fit your specific needs. The downside here is that you are taking on a lot of responsibility and risk, so it’s important to make sure you understand all the legal implications before proceeding.

Frequently asked questions

Yes, absolutely! Even if you’ve already formed your LLC, it’s never too late to draw up an Operating Agreement. A New York LLC Operating Agreement can help protect your business legally by creating clear rules and expectations for all stakeholders. As such, it’s important to develop an Operating Agreement for your LLC regardless of when it was formed.

In New York, an LLC Operating Agreement does not need to be notarized. That said, if you plan on using the agreement as evidence in a legal case, it may be beneficial for all signatories to have their signatures notarized.

As a business owner, it is important to ensure that all legal documents are properly drafted and up-to-date. While you do not necessarily need to hire a lawyer for the creation of your LLC’s Operating Agreement, there are certain situations where professional guidance may be beneficial. An experienced attorney can help you draft an agreement that is tailored to the specific needs of your business and will protect both members if any disputes arise in the future.

Without an Operating Agreement, your LLC will be subject to the default rules of the state in which it is formed. Typically, these laws are not ideal and may not reflect how you want your company to operate. In New York, for example, all members must share equally in both profits and losses unless otherwise stated in a written agreement. Having an Operating Agreement in NY can help make sure that everyone is on the same page when it comes to how the business should run.